What is a piston pump? its working, types, advantages & disadvantages with PDF (2022)

Fluid Mechanics

ByAdmin Last updated on

The pumps have become a most vital part of all household and industrial applications. Multiple types of pumps are available in the market, and piston pump is one of them. Piston pumps use a piston for fluid compression. This article mainly explains various aspects of the piston pump.

Get your PDF on Piston pumps at the end of the article.

What is a Piston Pump?

The pump which uses a piston to pump the fluid from one place to the other is known as a piston pump. It is a famous type of reciprocating pump. In this pump, the piston moves up and down in the compression cylinder. This piston is connected with a crankshaft which gets power by the electric motor and drives the piston.

The piston pump contains inlet and outlet check valves, connecting rods, crankshaft, and a piston. The hand pump is the most common example of the piston pump. The hand pump uses a piston to suck and draw water.

This piston is linked with the handle of the pump. As the handle moves down, it forces the piston to move down and sucks water into the cylinder.

Similarly, when the handle operates moves the handle up, the piston also moves up, opens the discharge valve, and discharges the water.

Working of the Piston pump

A piston pump works on the positive displacement principle. A piston pump works in the following way:

What is a piston pump? its working, types, advantages & disadvantages with PDF (1)

  • First of all, an electric motor or engine supplies power to the crankshaft.
  • As the crankshaft gets power, it turns and delivers its rotary motion to the connecting rod.
  • The connecting rod receives rotary motion by the crank, transforms it into the reciprocating motion, and sends this reciprocating motion to the piston.
  • As the piston receives reciprocating motion, it starts moving in a downward direction (from TDC to BDC).
  • During this downward motion, the piston creates a vacuum inside the pump cylinder.
  • A pressure difference between the cylinder’s inner pressure and outer pressure creates due to the creation of a vacuum.
  • As the cylinder’s inner pressure becomes lower than the pressure of the reservoir, the inlet valve opens, and fluid starts entering into the cylinder.
  • As the suction process completes, the inlet valve closes, and the piston starts moving upward for pressurizing the fluid.
  • During the piston’s upward motion, the cylinder inner area starts decreasing due to that fluid compresses.
  • During the compression process, the pressure and temperature of the fluid become very high.
  • As the fluid pressure becomes equal to the desired pressure, the discharge valve opens, and fluid is transferred to the desired place.
  • After this first stroke of the piston, the crank again forces the piston to move downward, and the whole process repeats.

Must Read: Types of Air compressors

Types of Piston Pumps

The piston pump has the following major types:

  1. Lift piston pump
  2. Force piston pump
  3. Axial piston pump
    • Straight axis piston pump
    • Bent axis pump
  4. Radial piston pump
What is a piston pump? its working, types, advantages & disadvantages with PDF (2)
(Video) Animation - How an axial flow variable displacement piston pump works.

1) Lift Piston Pump

This type of piston pump works by drawing fluid from the suction valve to the bottom section of the cylinder. During the upward stroke, the piston moves upward thus creating suction. This causes the fluid to enter the cylinder through the valve.

Now during the downward stroke, the piston moves downward creating pressure on the fluid. There are valves present in the piston that let the fluid pass through the piston to the other side.

Again during the upward stroke, the fluid in the upper part of the cylinder is forced out whereas, in the lower part of the cylinder, the fluid is drawn in.

Thus it takes 3 strokes of the piston to pull and deliver the fluid.

This is how the lift piston pump works.

2) Force Pump

The working of the force pump is very identical to the lift pump. In this pump, the upward motion of the piston sucks fluid into the cylinder via an inlet valve. After the compression process, the downstroke expels the fluid from the pump into the discharge pipe via an outlet valve.

What is a piston pump? its working, types, advantages & disadvantages with PDF (3)

The main difference between a forced pump and a lift pump is that the lift pumps require an additional upstroke to discharge the fluid, while a force pump doesn’t require this additional stroke.

The force pumps need only one upward stroke to suck the fluid and one downward stroke to discharge it. The power pump only needs one upstroke to fill in water and one downstroke to expel the medium.

(Video) Axial piston pump - how it works?

The lift pumps discharge the fluid with the second upstroke while a force pump discharges the fluid with the first downstroke.

The well-known “hand pump” is a type of force piston pump.

3) Axial Piston Pump

This pump has a series of pistons that are settled parallel to the drive crankshaft. The axial pumps can use as fixed or variable displacement pumps.

In these pumps, the cylinder and pistons alternate around the central vertical axis. The shoe and pistons reciprocate inward and outward the cylinder as they slide on a fixed swash plate with a variable angle.

When the piston rotates, it alternates between suction and discharge valves. When the piston passes through the suction valve, the liquid is introduced into the cavity of the piston. As it moves over the discharge valve, it drains liquid from the piston cavity.

The rotation speed of the piston regulates via the mechanical rotation input of the crankshaft. The amount of liquid sucked inside the compression cylinder during piston rotation is regulated via the swash block angle.

The axial piston pumps can be further classified as:

(Video) variable displacement piston pump

  • Straight axis piston pump
  • Bent axis piston pump

4) Radial Piston Pump

Radial piston pumps have a series of pistons in a cylindrical block that surrounds the rotor hub. The cylinder consists of a shaft, a piston, and a rotor. The pintle moves the fluid in and out of the cylinder.

What is a piston pump? its working, types, advantages & disadvantages with PDF (5)

The rotor is eccentrically attached to the pump housing. As the piston rotates in and out of the cylinder, hydraulic oil is drawn into the cylinder cavity and drained from the cylinder cavity.

The pump inlet and outlet are located in the valve on the central shaft. Each piston connects to the inlet when it begins to expand and to the outlet when it contracts.

Radial piston pumps are used in applications with high pressures (working pressures from 400 bar to over 700 bar) such as presses, machines for processing plastics, machine tools for maintaining the oil pressure.

They have many advantages, such as high efficiency, high-pressure capacity up to 1,000 bar or 14,000 psi, low flow and pressure fluctuations, low noise development, very high load at minimum speed, high reliability, and much more.

The disadvantage is that it is more significant than an axial pump due to its large radial dimensions and is therefore not always available in applications with limited space.

Advantages of Piston Pumps

  1. These pumps have a wide range of pressure.
  2. These have capability to move sludges and high viscosity fluids.
  3. They don’t need priming.
  4. Priming is not required in this pump.
  5. They are most efficient than plunger pumps.

Disadvantages of Piston Pumps

  • These pumps provide pulsating fluid.
  • They have lower power than centrifugal pumps.
  • These have high maintenance cost.
  • These cant handle lesser flow.

Applications of Piston Pumps

  1. The piston pumps are used to handle very low flow at high pressure.
  2. These pumps are used to deliver high viscosity fluids.
  3. They use to pump hydraulics oil.
  4. The piston pump also uses for high pressure cleaning.
  5. These pumps use for industrial processing devices.

FAQs

What are the advantages and disadvantages of piston pumps? ›

Piston Pumps and Plunger Pumps Information
AdvantagesDisadvantages
Wide pressure range - can achieve very high pressuresHigh operating and maintenance costs.
Pressure can be controlled without affecting flow rate.Typically heavy and bulky
2 more rows

What is piston pump and how it works? ›

A piston pump is a type of positive displacement pump where the high-pressure seal reciprocates with the piston. Piston pumps can be used to move liquids or compress gases. They can operate over a wide range of pressures. High pressure operation can be achieved without adversely affecting flow rate.

What are the different types of piston pumps? ›

There are four different types of piston pumps: lift pumps, force pumps, axial pumps, and radial piston pumps. Lift and force pumps can be operated manually or with the assistance of an engine from these pumps.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of piston pumps & plunger pumps? ›

The advantages of piston and plunger pumps are their self-priming capability (self-priming pump) and high efficiency; disadvantages include their pulsating delivery and, especially in the case of large units, their space requirements, their large mass and their high investment costs per unit of pump output.

What is the working principle of piston? ›

Pistons work by transferring the force output of an expanding gas in the cylinder to a crankshaft, which provides rotational momentum to a flywheel. Such a system is known as a reciprocating engine.

Where is a piston pump used? ›

Piston pumps can be used to move liquids or compressed gases and can also pump viscous media and media containing solid particles. Piston pumps are used for water and oil hydraulics, industrial processing equipment, high pressure cleaning and the pumping of liquids.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of centrifugal pump? ›

Cannot be able to work high head.
...
Centrifugal Pump – Advantage & Disadvantage
  • Small in size, space saving & less capital costs.
  • Easy for maintenance.
  • No danger creates if discharge v/v is closed while starting.
  • Deal with large volume.
  • Able to work medium to low head.
  • Able to work medium to low viscous fluid.
20 Mar 2013

What is the difference between axial piston pump and radial piston pump? ›

A radial pump has the pistons arranged radially in a cylinder block (Figure 17-21), while the pistons in the axial units are parallel to each other and to the axis of the cylinder block (Figure 17-22). Axial piston pumps may be further divided into in-line (swash plate) and bent-axis types.

How are piston pumps made? ›

Piston Pumps (Full Lecture) - YouTube

What are the major advantages of piston pumps over gear or vane pump? ›

While gear pumps are available in a wide range of displacement sizes and pressures, and they suit various machinery applications, piston pumps offer the benefits of higher pressure ratings and are variable displacement and energy efficient.

What is a disadvantage of CAM ground pistons? ›

The disadvantage of cam ground pistons is that they should be warmed to operating temperature before being subjected to high cylinder pressures. Failure to properly warm cam ground pistons before loading an engine can overstress the piston rings and piston lands.

What is difference between piston pump and plunger pump? ›

The difference between a piston and plunger pumps is the high-pressure seal. In a piston pump, the seal is attached to and reciprocates along with the piston. Because of this, piston pump seals wear out faster and cannot handle as much pressure compared to plunger pumps.

What are the disadvantages of pump? ›

Disadvantages of Pump:

Produce cavitation. Corrosion. Cannot be able to work at high speed.

What is the working principle of centrifugal pump? ›

A centrifugal pump operates through the transfer of rotational energy from one or more driven rotors, called impellers. The action of the impeller increases the fluid's velocity and pressure and directs it towards the pump outlet.

What is RAM type pump? ›

DIY hydraulic ram pump. The Hydraulic Ram Pump, Hydram, or simply Ram Pump is an automatic pumping device that is capable of pumping water higher than its original source without using electricity or any other power source. It uses just two moving parts, and it is therefore mechanically very simple.

What are the 3 types of pistons? ›

There are three types of pistons, each named for its shape: flat top, dome, and dish.

What is piston in engine PDF? ›

The piston is a reciprocating part of IC engine that performs a number of functions. The main. functions of the piston are as follows: (1) It transmits the force due to gas pressure inside the cylinder to the crankshaft through the. connecting rod.

Which material is used for piston? ›

A piston subject to high temperatures and high pressures during its reciprocation in a cylinder of an internal combustion engine is required to have a high strength and a high resistance against wear and to be lightweight. As a material for such a piston, an Al (aluminium) alloy containing Si (silicon) is widely used.

Who invented piston pump? ›

1650. Otto von Guericke invents the piston vacuum pump, which used leather washers/packing to prevent leakage between the cylinder and the piston.

How many types of pump are there? ›

There are three basic types of pumps: positive-displacement, centrifugal and axial-flow pumps. In centrifugal pumps the direction of flow of the fluid changes by ninety degrees as it flows over an impeller, while in axial flow pumps the direction of flow is unchanged.

How efficient is a piston pump? ›

The overall efficiency is found to drop considerably with the decreasing displacement. The volumetric losses range from 13% to 47% of the total power losses of pump at the rated speed, under the conditions of pressure ranging from 5 to 35 MPa and displacement ranging from 13% to 100% of full displacement.

What is the advantage of diaphragm pump? ›

1. HANDLES A WIDE VARIETY OF FLUIDS WITH HIGH SOLIDS CONTENT: Handling a wide range of viscosity - both caustic and abrasive, Diaphragm pumps are some of the most versatile pumps in the world. NO close – fitting or rotating parts so liquid with high solid % and/or size of solids can be pumped easily.

What is the use of diaphragm pump? ›

Diaphragm pumps are self priming and are ideal for viscous liquids. Virtually all major industries utilize diaphragm pumps. They are commonly used to move abrasive fluids, including concrete, or acids and chemicals. They are also common in automobiles and aircraft.

What is a diaphragm in a pump? ›

Inside the pump is a diaphragm, or membrane, made of a rubber or plastic material. When the diaphragm flexes, the pressure inside the pump lowers, which draws in fluid. Depending on your water pump, the diaphragm might use different methods to flex.

How does a radial piston pump work? ›

Radial piston pumps work by having an eccentric shaft that pushes radially positioned pistons outward to provide flow, then when they are drawn backward, a valve inside the piston opens to allow new fluid into the piston and stop the pressurised fluid from returning into the piston cavity.

How does an inline piston pump work? ›

Axial piston pump - how it works? - YouTube

How does a rotary piston pump work? ›

A rotary piston pump operates by a piston sliding back and forth along a rotors groove pulling liquid into the inlet of the pump. The rotor operates like a rotary valve enabling the pump to self prime. Two direct driven pistons operating in twin cylinders.

What is the disadvantage of a centrifugal? ›

One of the biggest drawbacks of centrifugal pumps is their sensitivity to operating environment. Pump cavitations and other vibrations caused by the surrounding conditions can cause significant damage and expensive repairs due to pitting on the impeller or casing in food grade centrifugal pumps.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of reciprocating pumps? ›

Advantages and Disadvantages of Reciprocating Pump
  • This pump is self-priming - Not require filling the cylinders by starting.
  • This pump can work in wide pressure range.
  • Priming is not necessary in pump.
  • Provide high pressure at outlet.
  • Provide elevated suction lift.
  • They are use for air also.

What is the major disadvantage of centrifugal pump? ›

The main disadvantage is that they use rotation instead of suction to move water, and therefore have almost no suction power. This means that a centrifugal pump must be put under water, or primed, before it will move water. Centrifugal pumps can also develop a phenomenon called “cavitation”.

What type of pump is a radial piston pump? ›

A radial piston pump is a form of hydraulic pump. The working pistons extend in a radial direction symmetrically around the drive shaft, in contrast to the axial piston pump.

What is a bent axis piston pump? ›

Bent Axis Pump (from Internet Glossary of Pumps) Bent Axis Pump. In this pump, the pistons are at an angle to the drive shaft and Thrust Plate. The piston block shaft is connected to the drive shaft by a universal joint, not shown. The drive shaft, thrust plate, piston block shaft, and piston block all revolve.

What is a piston plunger? ›

Plunger pumps and piston pumps operate in much the same way. They're both reciprocating displacement pumps that pull water through a one-way intake valve, pressurize it and discharge it through a one-way outtake valve. Most pressure washer models have two (duplex) or three (triplex) pistons or plungers.

How many pistons can piston pumps have? ›

Axial piston pumps typically have 9 pistons that rotate around a central drive shaft. As the pistons rotate they move against a swashplate or bent axis which forces them to move up and down along the pump axis. As the pistons retract they allow fluid, under the reservoir pressure head, to fill the increasing volume.

What is a stroke piston pump? ›

A piston pump is a type of positive displacement pump in which fluid is moved by the repeated back-and-forth movement (strokes) of a piston. These cycles are called reciprocation. The strokes of a conventional piston pump are shown in Figure 1.

What do you mean by pump? ›

British English: pump /pʌmp/ NOUN. A pump is a machine that is used to force a liquid or gas to flow in strong regular movements in a particular direction.

What are the advantages of variable-displacement pump? ›

Match power to load: A key advantage of variable-displacement pumps is that output (flow to the actuator) changes to match application requirements. If you want the hydraulic motor to operate at a specific speed, the pump will deliver the flow required.

What is a hydraulic piston pump used for? ›

The Hydraulic Piston Pump Process

Hydraulic pumps are designed to control the flow of fluid. Many of these pumps are part of hydraulic systems designed to produce energy. Once a pump is activated, the resulting pressure moves the hydraulic fluid and powers a mechanism. These systems are incredibly powerful.

How many types of hydraulic pumps are there? ›

Three different types of hydraulic pumps exist: gear pumps, piston pumps and vane pumps.

What shape is a piston? ›

The piston is designed to be an elliptical shape when cold. As the engine reaches operating temperature, the piston pin bore area expands more than other thinner areas of the piston.

What are the parts of the piston? ›

Piston features include the piston head, piston pin bore, piston pin, skirt, ring grooves, ring lands, and piston rings. The piston head is the top surface (closest to the cylinder head) of the piston which is subjected to tremendous forces and heat during normal engine operation.

What are the three basic piston types used in diesel engines? ›

There are three basic size groups of diesel engines based on power—small, medium, and large.

Does a piston pump create flow or pressure? ›

The hydraulic positive displacement pump is the heart of the hydraulic system. While it's true that pumps don't create pressure, they do create flow. It's also true that resistance to flow creates pressure.

What is the function of plunger? ›

The plunger displaces the available volume through its own volume and increases the pressure of the fluid to be pumped. The suction valve closes and the pressure valve opens the way into the process area for the pressurized fluid.

What is RAM and plunger? ›

A hydraulic press contains two cylinders which are connected to one another. Each cylinder contains hydraulic fluid and one cylinder is larger than the other. The larger cylinder is known as the Ram and the smaller one is known as the Plunger.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of centrifugal pump? ›

Cannot be able to work high head.
...
Centrifugal Pump – Advantage & Disadvantage
  • Small in size, space saving & less capital costs.
  • Easy for maintenance.
  • No danger creates if discharge v/v is closed while starting.
  • Deal with large volume.
  • Able to work medium to low head.
  • Able to work medium to low viscous fluid.
20 Mar 2013

What are the major advantages of piston pumps over gear or vane pump? ›

While gear pumps are available in a wide range of displacement sizes and pressures, and they suit various machinery applications, piston pumps offer the benefits of higher pressure ratings and are variable displacement and energy efficient.

What is a disadvantage of CAM ground pistons? ›

The disadvantage of cam ground pistons is that they should be warmed to operating temperature before being subjected to high cylinder pressures. Failure to properly warm cam ground pistons before loading an engine can overstress the piston rings and piston lands.

What are the disadvantages of pump? ›

Disadvantages of Pump:

Produce cavitation. Corrosion. Cannot be able to work at high speed.

What is the disadvantage of a centrifugal? ›

One of the biggest drawbacks of centrifugal pumps is their sensitivity to operating environment. Pump cavitations and other vibrations caused by the surrounding conditions can cause significant damage and expensive repairs due to pitting on the impeller or casing in food grade centrifugal pumps.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of reciprocating pumps? ›

Advantages and Disadvantages of Reciprocating Pump
  • This pump is self-priming - Not require filling the cylinders by starting.
  • This pump can work in wide pressure range.
  • Priming is not necessary in pump.
  • Provide high pressure at outlet.
  • Provide elevated suction lift.
  • They are use for air also.

Where are piston pumps used? ›

Applications of Piston Pumps

Piston pumps are used for water and oil hydraulics, industrial processing equipment, high pressure cleaning and the pumping of liquids.

What is the advantage of diaphragm pump? ›

1. HANDLES A WIDE VARIETY OF FLUIDS WITH HIGH SOLIDS CONTENT: Handling a wide range of viscosity - both caustic and abrasive, Diaphragm pumps are some of the most versatile pumps in the world. NO close – fitting or rotating parts so liquid with high solid % and/or size of solids can be pumped easily.

What is the use of diaphragm pump? ›

Diaphragm pumps are self priming and are ideal for viscous liquids. Virtually all major industries utilize diaphragm pumps. They are commonly used to move abrasive fluids, including concrete, or acids and chemicals. They are also common in automobiles and aircraft.

How efficient is a piston pump? ›

The overall efficiency is found to drop considerably with the decreasing displacement. The volumetric losses range from 13% to 47% of the total power losses of pump at the rated speed, under the conditions of pressure ranging from 5 to 35 MPa and displacement ranging from 13% to 100% of full displacement.

What is the difference between axial piston pump and radial piston pump? ›

A radial pump has the pistons arranged radially in a cylinder block (Figure 17-21), while the pistons in the axial units are parallel to each other and to the axis of the cylinder block (Figure 17-22). Axial piston pumps may be further divided into in-line (swash plate) and bent-axis types.

What is the difference between piston pump and gear pump? ›

A piston pump typically uses reciprocating motion to create rotation along an axis. Some piston pumps have variable displacement, while others have a fixed displacement design. Gear pumps use gears or cogs to transfer fluids. The cogs are tightly aligned to create suction as they draw liquid in and discharge it.

What shape is a piston? ›

The piston is designed to be an elliptical shape when cold. As the engine reaches operating temperature, the piston pin bore area expands more than other thinner areas of the piston.

What is piston in engine PDF? ›

The piston is a reciprocating part of IC engine that performs a number of functions. The main. functions of the piston are as follows: (1) It transmits the force due to gas pressure inside the cylinder to the crankshaft through the. connecting rod.

What are the parts of the piston? ›

Piston features include the piston head, piston pin bore, piston pin, skirt, ring grooves, ring lands, and piston rings. The piston head is the top surface (closest to the cylinder head) of the piston which is subjected to tremendous forces and heat during normal engine operation.

Videos

1. PC3 Variable Displacement Axial Piston Pump Product Animation
(Parker Products and Support)
2. 100 HORSEPOWER in your HAND. Hydraulic PISTON PUMP!
(AvE)
3. Swash Plate Pump or axial piston pump
(Supreme_Engineer)
4. Sources of Piston Pump Case Drain Flow
(LunchBox Sessions)
5. Piston Pump | Construction and Working of Piston Pump | Industrial Fluid Power | 6th Sem Mech. Engg.
(Engineers Aadhar)
6. Types of Hydraulic Pumps | Mechanical | Piping
(Technical Piping)

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