Human Resource Management (HRM) in Agriculture (2022)

Project Director
Bitsch, V.

Recipient Organization
MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
(N/A)
EAST LANSING,MI 48824

Performing Department
AGRICULTURAL, FOOD & RESOURCE ECONOMICS

Non Technical Summary
Managing human resources is a critical success factor in production agriculture. With farm sizes increasing, employment of hired labor and managers has also increased. However, management know-how in this arena is lacking. This project examines agricultural human resource management practices to contribute to expand the knowledge base on those practices, compare them to and contrast them with practices in other industries, and improve practices in agriculture and reduce the risks involved.

Animal Health Component

(N/A)

Research Effort Categories

Basic

15%

Applied

70%

Developmental

15%

Classification

(Video) Agricultural Human Resource Management Training Modules

6026010310070%
6026020310010%
6026030310010%
6026050310010%

Knowledge Area
602 - Business Management, Finance, and Taxation;

Subject Of Investigation
6010 - Individuals; 6050 - Communities, areas, and regions; 6030 - The farm as an enterprise; 6020 - The family and its members;

Field Of Science
3100 - Management;

benefits

case study

communication

compensation

job satisfaction

labor management

motivation

personnel management

(Video) Agribusiness : Human Resource Management

qualitative research methods

recruitment

risk management

safety and health

survey methods

training

Goals / Objectives
(1) Analyze HRM practices in agriculture, including recruitment, selection, training, evaluation, motivation, compensation and benefit systems, discipline and termination, safety and health implementation, in Michigan and beyond. (2) Assess viability of current HRM practices and identify universally successful practices versus contingent practices. (3) Analyze the relationships between HRM practices and risk on different levels, such as production risk and legal risk, on the individual level, the work team level, the business level, and beyond. (4) Compare agricultural HRM practices to practices in other industries. (5) Analyze the increased need for HRM skills for agricultural management personnel and the managerial behaviors suitable at different hierarchical levels, and the consequences for manager education.

Project Methods
HRM practices in Michigan agriculture will be studied through a variety of research approaches, including qualitative methods (Bitsch 2000a, 2001a and 2001b), such as in-depth interview, focus group discussion, observation, and comprehensive case studies (Bitsch 2000b), as well as, quantitative approaches, such as questionnaires and surveys. Given the lack of a knowledge base regarding most of the objectives, qualitative research methods will dominate the early phases of the project. The emphasis will be hypotheses generating research, using grounded theory approaches to develop models for later quantitative phases. Grounded theory is an inductive approach to developing theory in the social sciences, first proposed by Glaser and Strauss (for recent developments in grounded theory see Clarke; for a discussion of its application to applied economics and management questions see Bitsch, 2005). Building on initial focus group research (see Bitsch, 2004, and Bitsch andHarsh for a discussion of the use of focus groups in research and extension), case study procedures will be developed using in-depth interviews and observation guides. An example of how this progression of methods led to emerging theory are case studies of dairy farms HRM practices and their use of human resources for sustained competitive advantage by Mugera and Bitsch, which built on focus group research with horticultural managers by Bitsch and Harsh and similar research and model development by Bitsch et al. with dairy managers. In later phases of the project, questionnaires and surveys of representative samples will be used increasingly. Results will be analyzed statistically and using multivariate approaches, such as cluster and factor analysis. As needed, and depending on the availability of suitable data sets, these analyses of primary data will be supported by comparative analyses of secondary data using econometric approaches.

Progress 02/01/07 to 01/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: (1) Group discussions with farmers were analyzed to identify skill sets required of managers and supervisors in livestock production and resulted in five management skill sets: Change Agent, Counselor, Model Employee, Motivator, and Housekeeper. These skill sets were compared with other industries based on the Competing Values Framework for managerial leadership. Skill sets are being used in manager education and selection. (2) Questions of religion and spirituality at work and in business have garnered attention in the management literature during the past decade. Agribusiness and agricultural economics does not reflect this trend, although agriculture, agribusiness, and the food industry abound with examples of organizations with religious statements in their mission. Using a case study approach, two Christian agribusinesses were analyzed and contrasted to a comparable secular business. The cases' human resource practices are surprisingly similar, as are their contributions to the community and customer relations. However, the motivations for similar practices differ and the Christian business leaders are more satisfied with their profitability. (3) In 2007, the Michigan State University Extension dairy team decided to collect broad-based and inclusive stakeholder input was started. Issue identification groups at different locations throughout the state and a mail survey was developed. Surveys were mailed to 2,237 dairy farmers, 71 herdspersons and management employees, and 171 next-generation family members in Michigan, as well as 480 allied industry professionals. Responses were used to shape the dairy team development and educational programming, as well as to further methods for collecting stakeholder input. (4) Labor aspects are beginning to be integrated into the sustainability discussion. Measurement and certification efforts regarding labor aspects are underway worldwide, but in the U.S. labor-related certification has developed slow and in localized ways. A current effort, including labor components, is the Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops. Developing valid sustainability measures is a wicked problem, due to typically conflicting perceptions of stakeholders, including advocacy groups, agricultural employees, organized labor, and employers, as well as, at times adversary relationships between employers, their associations, and organized labor. The project compares labor-related measures introduced by sustainability initiatives and measures used by different certification agencies and other organizations. The analysis is based on documents published on the Internet. (5) Two models of the effects of technological change in the U.S. nursery industry on the demand for labor quantity and quality are developed and compared. Analysis of structural data of the nursery industry, the theoretical and empirical literature on technological change and its impacts on the demand for labor and skills and the relationship between labor and capital, and cases studies of Oregon nurseries are combined to discuss and project the development of labor and technology in the nursery industry. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Researchers, extension educators, consultants, farmers, ranchers, horticulturists, agribusiness owners, agricultural employees, governmental and non-governmental agencies supporting the agricultural labor system, students. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
(1) This study contributes to and expands the research literature on managerial leadership in several ways. Livestock managers' work environment and task attributes differ from the majority of managers in studies of managerial leadership. Because their perceptions show more similarities than differences compared to general results, we posit a common ground of management skills across industries. The skill sets proposed in this study serve to improve managerial practice. (2) Religion and spirituality are expressed at work in multiple ways, whether this is discouraged, tolerated, or encouraged through the organizational leadership. Management research and practice in agriculture benefits from taking a closer look at the emerging field of management, spirituality, and religion. Studies not including the value system as a variable in management research lack an important component. In particular, human resource management research benefits from including religion and spirituality because of the importance of the person-organization-practices fit. (3) The procedure developed for issue identification combines the nominal group method with the focus group. It is less time-consuming than a nominal group process. Different from a focus group discussion, it leads to immediate results at the end of each group meeting through the moderated, focused process and use of laptop computers. Results of each group can immediately be used by local or regional extension educators for program development. An additional aggregation step by the research team is necessary to develop priorities across groups. Evaluation of the team is required for this step. The issue identification procedure can be used as a stand-alone method and as a basis to develop additional research instruments, e.g., mail surveys. Dairy industry survey results are serving industry stakeholders, including farmer associations and extension educators as input and benchmarks for priority setting and educational program planning. (4) Sustainability cannot be solved but need to be managed including multiple stakeholders with diverging perspectives and varying participation. Initiatives, such as the Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops have the potential to substantially improve environmental and social reporting and impacts. Working measures must be decided in a collaborative process and be subject to future developments. Experts and research cannot replace this political process, but provide useful inputs. (5) The nursery industry adapts to increasing retailer power, increasingly quality- and variety-conscious consumers, and expectations of rising wages. The growing use of labor aids, such as potting assembly belts and pruning equipment is discussed as a tradeoff among labor quantity, labor quality, and capital instead of the tradeoff between labor and capital. Management invests in training to substitute labor quality for quantity, and in on- and off-site-produced equipment in order to substitute capital for either. Capital intensification shifts the distribution of nursery skills.

Publications

  • Bitsch, V. 2010. AG Labor Review: People the third leg of the sustainability tripod. Vegetable Grower News 44 (10, October), 18.
  • Bitsch, V. 2010. Update on AgJOBS. Michigan Dairy Review 15(1), 13.
  • Bitsch, V. 2010. A look to the outside: Personnel management in agriculture from a North American perspective. Agricultural Personnel Management, ed. by Zazie von Davier and Ludwig Theuvsen, Frankfurt a.M./Germany: DLG Press, p. 73-88 (in German).
  • Bitsch, V. 2010. Labor Aspects of Sustainability, Annual World Forum and Symposium of the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association, https://www.ifama.org/events/conferences/2010/cmsdocs/76_paper.pdf.
  • Bitsch, V. 2010. Comparing Farm Labor Trends in Michigan and Oregon, Immigration Reform: Implications for Farmers, Farm Workers, and Communities, http://migration.ucdavis.edu/cf/index.php.
  • Bitsch, V., Ferris, T., and Lee, K. 2009. Extension teams collecting industry-specific stakeholder input. Journal of Extension (JoE), 47 (June, 3), Article 3RIB5, http://www.joe.org/joe/2009june/rb5.php.
  • Bitsch, V., Ferris, T., Lee, K. and Ross, D. 2009. Industry Professionals View. 2008 Michigan Dairy Industry Survey. Michigan Dairy Review 14 (1), 3-7.
  • Bitsch, V. 2008. Spirituality and religion: Recent developments in the management literature-relevant to agribusiness and entrepreneurship. Symposium of the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association, http://dev.ifama.org/library.aspcollection=2008_monterey&volume=symp osium_presentation_files/1009_paper.pdf.
  • Bitsch, V. 2008. Labor most important issue facing the industry today. Vegetable Growers News 42 (3), 32-3.
  • Bitsch, V., Ferris, T., Lee, K., McFadden, M. and Ross, D. 2008. Extension educators collecting industry-specific stakeholder input, American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, http://purl.umn.edu/43249.
  • Bitsch, V., Lee, K., Ferris, T., Ross, D., and McFadden, M. 2008. Dairy farmers priorities-2008 Michigan Dairy Industry Survey. Michigan Dairy Review 13 (4), 1-4.
  • Bitsch, V., and Olynk, N.J. 2008. Risk-increasing and risk-reducing practices in human resource management: Focus group discussions with livestock managers. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 40 (1):185-201.
  • Bitsch, V. 2007. Job satisfaction in horticulture: New insights. Acta Horticulturae 762:431-8.
  • Bitsch, V. and Yakura, E. 2007. Middle management in agriculture: Roles, functions, and practices. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 10 (2):1-28.
  • Bitsch, V. and Olynk, N.J. 2007. Skills required of managers in livestock production: Evidence from focus group research. Review of Agricultural Economics 29 (4):749-64.

Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This report summarizes three subprojects: (1) Sustainability measurement in agricultural labor management; (2) Comparing the agricultural labor situation in Michigan an Oregon; (3) Labor and technology change in nursery production. (1) Labor aspects are beginning to be integrated into the sustainability discussion. Measurement and certification efforts regarding labor aspects are underway worldwide, but in the U.S. labor-related certification has developed slow and in localized ways. A current effort, including labor components, is the Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops. Developing valid sustainability measures is a wicked problem, due to typically conflicting perceptions of stakeholders, including advocacy groups, agricultural employees, organized labor, and employers, as well as, at times adversary relationships between employers, their associations, and organized labor. The project compares labor-related measures introduced by sustainability initiatives and measures used by different certification agencies and other organizations. The analysis is based on documents published on the Internet. Results are disseminated through presentations to scientific and lay audiences, informational email to and discussions with industry association representatives and extension personnel, discussions via Internet, a conference paper, and trade journal publications. (2) In Michigan and Oregon, the role and conditions of agricultural production labor was analyzed and compared based on USDA statistical information, the Census of Agriculture, and data from a variety of publications and unpublished studies. Results are disseminated through discussions with stakeholders, presentations to scientific and stakeholder audiences, and a conference paper. (3) Two models of the effects of technological change in the U.S. nursery industry on the demand for labor quantity and quality are developed and compared. Analysis of structural data of the nursery industry, the theoretical and empirical literature on technological change and its impacts on the demand for labor and skills and the relationship between labor and capital, and cases studies of Oregon nurseries are combined to discuss and project the development of labor and technology in the nursery industry. Results are disseminated through a conference poster presentation. PARTICIPANTS: (1) Sustainability measurement in agricultural labor management: partner organizations organized within the Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops, Human Resources Workgroup (www.stewardshipindex.org). (2) Comparing Michigan's and Oregon's agricultural labor situation: Phil Martin, University of California, Davis. (3) Labor and technology change in nursery production: Steven Buccola, Oregon State University. TARGET AUDIENCES: Audiences. Researchers, extension educators, consultants, farmers, ranchers, horticulturists, agribusiness owners, agricultural employees, governmental and non-governmental agencies supporting the agricultural labor system, students. Efforts. (1) Paper presentation on sustainability measurement in agricultural labor management at an international scientific conference in 2010. (2) Paper presentation on comparing Michigan's and Oregon's agricultural labor situation at national conference in 2010. (3) Poster presentation on labor and technology change in nursery production at a national scientific conference in 2010. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
(1) Sustainability and other wicked problems cannot be solved but need to be managed including multiple stakeholders with diverging perspectives and varying participation. Initiatives, such as the Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops, have made headway in this direction. These initiatives have the potential to substantially improve environmental and social reporting and impacts. Because there is no final solution to wicked problems, working measures must be decided in a collaborative process and be subject to future developments. The goals of data collection, as well as accurate and replicable measures, conflict with easy access and brevity. Experts and research cannot replace this political process, but provide useful inputs. The reporter is involved in further developing labor management benchmarks as coordinator for the Stewardship Index multi-stakeholder workgroup. (2) In Michigan and Oregon, agricultural production is diverse and labor intensive. The share of contract labor is low compared to California and Florida. Overall, the share of contract labor is decreasing in Michigan, but increasing in Oregon. Numbers of long-term workers are increasing; numbers of short-term workers are decreasing in both states. Except most recently, wage rates have developed similarly, despite minimum wage indexing in Oregon. Sales are not keeping up with expense increases, in labor intensive crops. More farm workers are migratory in Michigan than in Oregon. The West has more unauthorized, more newcomers, and more farm workers with Spanish as their main language than the Midwest. Farm workers are more likely to live on-farm in Michigan. It has twice as many licensed farm labor camps, despite a much smaller workforce, and housing quality is likely higher in Michigan. (3) The nursery industry adapts to increasing retailer power, increasingly quality- and variety-conscious consumers, and expectations of rising wages. The growing use of labor aids, such as potting assembly belts and pruning equipment is discussed as a tradeoff among labor quantity, labor quality, and capital instead of the tradeoff between labor and capital. Management invests in training to substitute labor quality for quantity, and in on- and off-site-produced equipment in order to substitute capital for either. Capital intensification shifts the distribution of nursery skills. In a unimodal shift capital supplants labor continuously more at the lower than the higher skill levels. In a bimodal shift capital supplants mid-level employees, so that the skill distribution bifurcates between a low-skill and a high-skill mode. The shift arising in the U.S. nursery sector will take a unimodal form similar to those observed earlier in such farm commodity production as wheat and sugar beets. Low-skilled workers will be supplanted by more skilled ones. Yet, rising product variety and retailer service demands will simultaneously bring a greater return to nursery computing investments, eliminating parts of the larger nurseries' mid-level workforce and creating a renewed demand for low-skill laborers. In addition, the nursery industry will become more differentiated with respect to labor-intensity.

Publications

(Video) HR management in agriculture and and agri-food business
  • Bitsch, V. 2010. AG Labor Review: People the third leg of the sustainability tripod. Vegetable Grower News 44 (10, October), 18.
  • Bitsch, V. 2010. Comparing Farm Labor Trends in Michigan and Oregon, Immigration Reform: Implications for Farmers, Farm Workers, and Communities, http://migration.ucdavis.edu/cf/index.php.
  • Bitsch, V. 2010. Update on AgJOBS. Michigan Dairy Review 15(1), 13.
  • Bitsch, V. 2010. A look to the outside: Personnel management in agriculture from a North American perspective. - Agricultural Personnel Management, ed. by Zazie von Davier and Ludwig Theuvsen, Frankfurt a.M./Germany: DLG Press, p. 73-88 (in German).
  • Bitsch, V. 2010. Labor Aspects of Sustainability, Annual World Forum and Symposium of the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association, https://www.ifama.org/events/conferences/2010/cmsdocs/76_paper.pdf.

Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The dairy industry survey project reported on in the previous progress report was continued in 2009. To summarize, the Michigan State University Dairy Team conducted an industry survey with the objectives of identifying and rating industry priorities, including human resource management research and education. After holding discussion groups across the state, two questionnaires were developed. The farm owner and operator survey was mailed to 2,237 Grade A dairy farms in the state, based on a list obtained from the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The allied industry professional survey was mailed to 480 industry professionals, based on a list developed by the Dairy Team. 23.4% of the dairy farmers and 28.1% of the allied industry professionals returned questionnaires with useable data. Allied industry responses came from veterinarians, nutritionists, herd management consultants, and feed company employees, as well as lenders and financial consultants, equipment dealers and sales representatives, milk cooperative and processor employees, artificial insemination company employees, and government agency employees. A report was published on respondents' ratings of industry issues, as well as education and knowledge needs. In addition, educational preferences, management practices, Internet access and use, demographic information, and farm characteristics were outlined. Survey results were also disseminated through industry publications, newsletters, presentations to industry stakeholder, and discussions with different groups. The survey results are also used to set Dairy Team priorities for the coming years. Another important project has been methodological work on applying grounded theory in agricultural economics and management research. Grounded theory is frequently used in qualitative research, in particular in mainly quantitative fields. It is a systematic approach to developing theory based on data. The call for more qualitative research has been put forth in many social sciences, but so far has not seen much resonance in applied economics. Grounded theory is typically framed in the context of discovery and theory development. However, it is also useful to better understand the details of complex phenomena, which are difficult to tackle with quantitative methods, such as wicked problems. But grounded theory's usefulness is not limited to discovery; it extends to qualification and correction of existing theory where in-depth understanding of the actors' perspectives is paramount. A methodological paper on grounded theory in agricultural economics was delivered at the Symposium Qualitative Agricultural Economics at the International Conference of Agricultural Economists in Beijing/China. Furthermore, a similar paper was presented at Oregon State University. Individual advising of colleagues and graduate students of different backgrounds has followed both presentations. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators on the dairy industry needs analysis include Ted Ferris, Professor, Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Kathy Lee, Dairy Educator, Missaukee County Extension, Michigan State University, Lake City, Michigan; Mike McFadden, Dairy Educator, Isabella County Extension, Michigan State University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan; Dean Ross, Dairy Educator, Livingston County Extension, Michigan State University. TARGET AUDIENCES: Audiences. Researchers, extension educators, consultants, farmers, ranchers, horticulturists, agribusiness owners, agricultural employees, governmental and non-governmental agencies supporting the agricultural labor system, graduate and undergraduate students. Efforts. Presentation and discussion at Symposium Qualitative Agricultural Economics at the International Conference of Agricultural Economists in Beijing/China; presentation and discussion at Technical University Munich/Germany; presentation and discussion at a national conference on Immigration Reform: Implications for Farmers, Farm Workers, and Communities at Washington/DC; presentations, discussions, and individual advising of graduate students and colleagues at Oregon State University; presentations, discussions, and individual advising of extension and outreach audiences in Michigan; guest lectures for graduate students at Michigan State University and Humboldt University Berlin/Germany PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Dairy industry survey results served industry stakeholders, including farmer associations and extension educators as input and benchmarks for priority setting and educational program planning. The Michigan State University Dairy Team is in the process of adapting program content and delivery methods based on survey outcomes. This is particularly important due to the changing structure of Michigan State University Extension. Other groups, such as industry associations and allied industry groups are also in the process of reviewing survey outcomes to revise priorities. The methodological research on the application of grounded theory in economic and management questions in agriculture and natural resources impacts research planning and proposals of graduate students and colleagues in Michigan, other U.S. states, and internationally. A growing number of studies in agricultural and resource economics include qualitative elements or even rely on qualitative methods. My methodological contributions increase awareness and understanding of grounded theory and support higher quality in these endeavors by graduate students and colleagues.

Publications

  • Bitsch, V. 2009. 2008 Michigan Dairy Industry Survey. Agricultural Economics Report 637, Michigan State University, East Lansing/MI (July 1, 2009, 59 pages), http://purl.umn.edu/51842.
  • Bitsch, V. 2009. Farm Labor in Michigan, Immigration Reform: Implications for Farmers, Farm Workers, and Communities, http://migration.ucdavis.edu/cf/index.php.
  • Bitsch, V. 2009. Personnel Management Research in Agribusiness, Symposium of the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association, http://www.ifama.org/library.aspcollection=2009_budapest&volume=symp osium/1067_paper.pdf.
  • Bitsch, V. 2009. Agricultural Labor Issues in Michigan. Monthly. Provides information on labor statistics, regulatory developments, current issues, and research results to over 80 subscribers in Michigan and beyond via email, and summaries are published in seasonal MSUE Alerts.
  • Bitsch, V. 2009. Agricultural Labor Issues in Michigan. MSU Pork Quarterly 14 (2), 1-3. Supplement to Michigan Pork 34 (2).
  • Bitsch, V., Ferris, T., Lee, K. 2009. Extension teams collecting industry-specific stakeholder input. Journal of Extension (JoE), 47 (June, 3) Article 3RIB5, http://www.joe.org/joe/2009june/rb5.php.
  • Bitsch, V., Ferris, T., Lee, K., and Ross, D., 2009. Industry Professionals View: 2008 Michigan Dairy Industry Survey. Michigan Dairy Review 14 (1), 3-7; also available at http://www.msu.edu/user/mdr/.

Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: This report describes two separate efforts, (1) an analysis of religion, spirituality, and human resource management practices based on a literature review and horticultural case studies and (2) industry needs analysis, including human resource management research and education needs, of the Michigan dairy industry through group discussions and mail surveys. (1) Questions of religion and spirituality at work and in business have garnered increasing attention in the management literature during the past decade. Agribusiness and agricultural economics do not yet reflect this trend, although agriculture, agribusiness, and the food industry abound with examples of organizations that have included a religious statement in their mission statement. This analysis presents an initial step to mapping this terrain for agricultural management research. A review of the management and related literature shows a lack of agreed on definitions and does not converge on a set of propositions and recommendations. Using a case study approach, two Christian agribusinesses are analyzed and contrasted to a comparable secular business. Human resource management practices of these three businesses are compared to practices attributed to religious businesses in the literature. The cases' practices are surprisingly similar, as are their contributions to the community and customer relations. However, the motivations for similar practices differ and the Christian business leaders are more satisfied with their profitability. While bringing value systems to the workplace cannot be avoided, managers need to treat them with caution to avoid discrimination. An instrumental approach to bringing value systems to the workplace, for example to reap higher profits, cannot be recommended, because religious or spiritual expressions need to be genuine or they are not likely to have positive results. (2) Extension educators have explored different methods for collecting stakeholder input and evaluating industry research and education needs, but a suitable methodology has not been agreed on. The Michigan State University Extension dairy team works with an advisory board and also collected formal stakeholder input through ten regional partner group surveys in 1997. In 2007, the team decided to seek another round of broad-based and inclusive stakeholder input. The research team decided to employ issue identification groups at different locations throughout the state and a mail survey. Four issue identification groups with farm participants and three groups with allied industry professionals were convened in the fourth quarter of 2007 and analyzed in early 2008. The group results were used for initial programming development. They also served as a basis for the development of a mail questionnaire. Surveys were mailed to 2,237 dairy farmers, 71 herdspersons and management employees, and 171 next-generation family members in Michigan, as well as 480 allied industry professionals. Initial analysis of the survey responses focused on the opinions of dairy farm operators who participated in the survey. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators on the dairy industry needs analysis include Ted Ferris, Professor, Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan; Kathy Lee, Dairy Educator, Missaukee County Extension, Michigan State University, Lake City, Michigan; Mike McFadden, Dairy Educator, Isabella County Extension, Michigan State University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan; Dean Ross, Dairy Educator, Livingston County Extension, Michigan State University. TARGET AUDIENCES: Audiences. Researchers, extension educators, consultants, farmers, ranchers, horticulturists, agribusiness owners, agricultural employees, governmental and non-governmental agencies supporting the agricultural labor system, students. Efforts. Presentation on spirituality, religion, and management at an international scientific conference; in-service for extension educators on spirituality, religion, and management (Michigan). Presentations on preliminary results to extension educators and several dairy industry stakeholders have been made by collaborators. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
(1) Religion and spirituality are expressed at work in multiple ways, whether this is discouraged, tolerated, or encouraged through the organizational leadership. Management research and practice in agriculture benefits from taking a closer look at the emerging field of management, spirituality, and religion. Studies not including the value system as a variable in management research lack an important component. In particular, human resource management research benefits from including religion and spirituality because of the importance of the person-organization-practices fit. Over time, managers with overtly stated beliefs are more likely to attract and retain employees with similar value systems. Increasing value congruence can lead to benefits, such as more uniform productivity and for the employees who share the values job satisfaction and commitment. Drawbacks include lack of cultural diversity, reduced problem solving potential, and dissatisfaction among dissenting employees. From a research standpoint, to include the motivation for implementing certain human resource management practices in studies assessing those practices is a key conclusion of this analysis. (2a) The procedure developed to collect stakeholder input combines the nominal group method with the focus group method. It has benefited from the author's previous experiences with focus group research to assess human resource management education needs in agriculture. It is less time-consuming than a nominal group process. Different from a focus group discussion, it leads to immediate results at the end of each group meeting through the moderated, focused process and use of laptop computers. Results of each group can immediately be used by local or regional extension educators for program development. An additional aggregation step by the research team is necessary to develop priorities across groups. Because issues and their importance differ from group to group, the judgment of the team is required for this step. The issue identification procedure can be used as a stand-alone method to collect stakeholder input in a wide variety of settings, and as a basis to develop additional research instruments. (2b) Dairy industry survey results are serving industry stakeholders, including farmer associations and extension educators as input and benchmarks for priority setting and educational program planning. The opinions of dairy farm operators regarding the large set of industry issues included in the survey have different implications for different industry groups. Collective action seems be required on many items. The research team has been invited to present to several stakeholder groups reviewing their priorities. In view of the survey responses, there are also numerous education and research opportunities to be addressed. The category receiving high median ratings in the education and research needs most frequently was herd management. Because many dairy farms are still very small and operate with few or no employees, labor management was not a high priority the average farm operator respondent.

Publications

  • Bitsch, V. 2008. Spirituality and religion: Recent developments in the management literature-relevant to agribusiness and entrepreneurship. Symposium of the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association, http://dev.ifama.org/library.aspcollection=2008_monterey&volume=symp osium_presentation_files/1009_paper.pdf.
  • Bitsch, V. 2008. Labor most important issue facing the industry today. Vegetable Growers News 42 (3), 32-3.
  • Bitsch, V., Ferris, T., Lee, K., McFadden, M. and Ross, D. 2008. Extension educators collecting industry-specific stakeholder input, American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, http://purl.umn.edu/43249.
  • Bitsch, V., Lee, K., Ferris, T., Ross, D., and McFadden, M. 2008. Dairy farmers priorities-2008 Michigan Dairy Industry Survey. Michigan Dairy Review 13 (4), 1-4.
  • Bitsch, V., and Olynk, N.J. 2008. Risk-increasing and risk-reducing practices in human resource management: Focus group discussions with livestock managers. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 40 (1):185-201.

Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Focus group discussions with pork and dairy farmers described in previous reports were analyzed to identify skill sets required of managers and supervisors in livestock production. Based on the assumption that management skills are learned and can be improved, this study explores which skills are relevant for supervisory and management positions in livestock production. It analyzes the perceptions of owners and managers of pork production operations and dairy farms of the skills needed to effectively manage their workforce. Management roles in livestock production are expected to differ from those in other industries, given the unique work environment and task attributes of production agriculture. In-depth analysis of the focus group discussion through iterative code development using the ATLAS-ti software resulted in five management skill sets: Change Agent, Counselor, Model Employee, Motivator, and Housekeeper. Characteristic of the Change Agent is the ability to see thebig picture, to think ahead, anticipate problems, and seek constant improvement and new solutions. Discussing the Change Agent skill set ranked last in frequency of discussion for both the pork and the dairy manager focus groups. The Counselor shows care and concern for employees' wellbeing and provides employees with genuine responses to their problems, including outside help, when necessary. The Counselor skill set was discussed more frequently than the Change Agent; it ranked second to last during the pork manager focus groups and third during the dairy manager focus groups. The Model Employee illustrates the need for a manager be familiar with the details of production processes and be able to perform various tasks. The Model Employee shows desire, drive, and a positive attitude towards any work required. The Model Employee skill set ranked third in frequency of discussion during the pork manager focus groups and the fourth (second to last) during the dairy manager focus groups.The Motivator role includes being a people person, treating employees as individuals, being willing and able to listen to employees, and being an effective communicator. The Motivator is training and teaching employees through demonstration and encouragement, and shows patience. The Motivator skill set ranked second rank during the pork manager focus groups and first during the dairy manager focus groups. The Housekeeper role involves the ability to lead employees and keep processes flowing smoothly, the ability to delegate and prioritize tasks, to maintain flexibility, and to overcome obstacles. The Housekeeper role also includes maintaining discipline and handling confrontations, while preserving good working relationships. The Housekeeper skill set ranked first during the pork manager focus groups and second during the dairy manager focus groups. These skill sets were compared with research in other industries based on the Competing Values Framework (CVF) for managerial leadership.The numerous parallels to the CVF were encouraging, given the inductive nature of the developed skill sets and interpreted as additional validation of the results. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborator. N.J. Olynk, Graduate Assistant, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, has been a partner in analyzing data and writing publications for the part of the project reported. TARGET AUDIENCES: Audiences. Researchers, extension educators, consultants, farmers, ranchers, horticulturists, agribusiness owners, agricultural employees, governmental and non-governmental agencies supporting the agricultural labor system. Efforts. Classroom instruction: project results are included in my undergraduate course Labor and Personnel Management in the Agrifood System; presentations at two national level extension conferences; oral and poster presentations at three national level scientific conferences; five state level oral and poster presentations (Michigan).

Impacts
This study contributes to and expands the research literature on managerial leadership in several ways. Livestock managers' work environment and task attributes differ from the majority of managers in studies of managerial leadership. However, their perceptions of management skills show more similarities than differences compared with previous research and conceptual publications. Therefore, we posit a common ground of management skills across industries. This is reflected in our study by the surprising similarity between dairy and pork managers, albeit differences in industry structure and work organization. The skill sets proposed in this study can serve to improve managerial practice in several ways. One area in which improvement can be achieved is considering which candidates to hire or promote into management positions. Considering all skill sets, instead of focusing on a few, and potentially minor important ones, for example, the Model Employee skills, which isoften the case in promoting employees with superior performance, will allow senior management to better predict a candidate's success. Therefore, setting up selection procedures and, for internal candidates and incumbents, performance evaluation procedures that include all relevant skill sets and focus on the most pertinent ones, will contribute to management effectiveness and overall productivity. Family farms will be able to benefit from this aspect, too, because they may be flexible in task assignments and responsibility sharing between different family members or have other job choices.

Publications

  • Bitsch, V. 2007. Job satisfaction in horticulture: New insights. Acta Horticulturae 762:431-8.
  • Bitsch, V. and Olynk, N.J. 2007. Skills required of managers in livestock production: Evidence from focus group research. Review of Agricultural Economics 29 (4):749-64.
  • Bitsch, V. and Yakura, E. 2007. Middle management in agriculture: Roles, functions, and practices. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 10 (2):1-28.

Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Analyzing human resource management practices and labor or work attributes and their risks in pork production, this study complemented a series of focus group discussions with agricultural managers in different sub-sectors previously reported: horticulture (greenhouse, nursery, and landscaping) and dairy farming. Six focus group discussions were convened with pork production managers of different size and type of operations in Kansas and Michigan. The twenty-four participating managers came from different hierarchical levels, including owners, middle managers, and first-line supervisors. Most participants were experienced managers with a mean of 18 years in the same position (range: 3 months to 48 years). Seventy-five percent had taken some college courses, and 45% had graduated from college. The number of employees varied from 1 to 110 employees, with an average of 28 employees per farm. Each meeting lasted about two hours and was tape-recorded and transcribed. Inaddition, the researchers took observation notes and participants filled out a one-page survey after the group discussion. The human resource management practices discussed in the focus groups, presented in the order of frequency of speech turns, were performance management (the day to day informal task-related interaction with employees), compensation (wages and incentives, benefits, perquisites), recruitment (access to workers, practices to increase applicant pool), training (orientation, training practices), working conditions and organizational structure (physical and organizational conditions at work), selection (practices and criteria), immigrant and temporary foreign employees (including English as a second language employees), discipline (policy and process), performance evaluation (beyond informal comments), social environment (non-task-related interaction between employees and with management personnel), and labor law (knowledge of laws and regulations and efforts to ensurecompliance). Human resource management practices in the pork industry did not seem significantly different from the dairy industry, but some differences were identified compared to more seasonal labor in horticulture. Working conditions received more emphasis from pork managers than from dairy managers, and they perceived more of a need for mitigating adverse conditions. Performance management was a newly introduced category in this study, because previous studies had focused on traditional human resource management function; the performance management function being not explicitly treated in human resource management textbooks. This function is most important to managers, in particular middle managers. Therefore, after re-analyzing material from previous studies, broad evidence was found for this function, which warrants future analysis.

(Video) Video Presentation Human Resources In Agriculture

Impacts
Agricultural managers and supervisors are less likely to receive human resource management training than managers in other industries, but the need for competent use of these management practices has increased with increasing farm sizes. Based on the human resource management practices discussed pork manager focus groups a pilot workshop has been developed and delivered in Kansas and Michigan for managers in pork production. The following topics have been addressed: employee selection, training, employee evaluation, compensation, conflict management, discipline and termination, workplace communication, and motivation. Workshop participants indicated that they increased their knowledge with respect to human resource management and they plan to put into practice what they have learned and thereby reduce labor related risks. Implementation of improved human resource management practices should reduce participants' turnover rates and increase labor productivity. Whilemost participants expect to increase productivity, they have difficulty to estimate the monetary value of the increase. Additional farmers and extension educators will benefit during upcoming extension meetings where the knowledge and experience developed will be used in presentations. Lessons learned from the workshops will also help tailor individual consultations to better address labor risks. Indirectly, the project will contribute to agricultural employees' quality of work life and reduce the number of workplace accidents and work-related health problems.

Publications

  • Bitsch, V., Abate Kassa, G., Harsh, S.B. and Mugera, A.W. 2006. Human resource management risks: Sources and control strategies based on dairy farmer focus groups. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 38:123-36.

Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
With growing farm sizes, retaining and motivating employees has become increasingly important in U.S. agriculture. One factor considered paramount in employee retention and motivation is job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is likely the most studied work-related attitude and assumed to influence a variety of behaviors. This project analyzed the job satisfaction of agricultural employees using Herzberg's theory, which is broadly employed in management practice of large organizations. The analysis is based on a subset of interviews from 14 case studies of labor management practices. The cases consisted of 4 landscape operations, 4 greenhouse operations, and 6 tree nurseries. Fifteen non-supervisory employee interviews were analyzed. Typically job satisfaction is modeled as a set of components. Components of job satisfaction empirically relevant to horticultural employees were family business values, achievement, recognition, work itself, involvement, personal life,interpersonal relationships, job security, supervision, working conditions, organization, safety, compensation, and information. Herzberg's theory assumes two underlying dimensions: motivation factors and hygiene factors. Hygiene factors or dissatisfiers, such as working conditions, company policies, supervision, co-workers, compensation, and job security do only reduce dissatisfaction but not lead to job satisfaction. Motivation factors or satisfiers, such as job growths, responsibility, and the challenge of the work itself, can create high levels of job satisfaction, but only if the hygiene factors have reached a satisfactory level. In contrast to Herzberg's theory, several of the empirical factors seemed to function as dissatisfiers and as satisfiers depending on their attributes. Achievement and recognition emerged as key components of satisfaction. The challenge of the work itself played a more ambiguous role. Closely intertwined with the task itself were aspects of the workingconditions, such as doing agricultural work and being outside, typically perceived as positive, and negative aspects, such as low quality machinery and facilities or weather conditions. The interaction of personal life and professional life, the interpersonal relationships at the workplace, and job security were mainly contributors to satisfaction. The personnel management competence of the supervisor was another factor contributing to the ease with which employees would leave their job. In general, business organization and structure were accepted as useful. Several interviewees perceived their company as needing more structure and rules. Some employees were dissatisfied with the wages and benefits available to them, but they liked the perquisites provided. A component that was generally seen as satisfying was the family atmosphere and the values of the owner families. Nine out of 15 interviewees brought up family business values, although this was not included in the interviewguide. While support for Herzberg's two component theory is weak, it is useful for classifying employees' attitudes. An in-depth analysis of the interviews with supervisory personnel is currently under way.

Impacts
The impacts of this analysis are both theoretical and practical. It showed the continuing relevance of part of Herzberg's theory for employee management. Results provided a basis for future broader survey studies of agricultural employees' job satisfaction and retention, which can be used to adapt standardized research instruments to the agricultural population. Also, findings from non-supervisory employees are a baseline for comparing supervisors' attitudes to gain further insights into long-term retention. Based on the knowledge gained through this additional analysis of the horticultural case studies, previously developed workshop materials were further refined to specifically address farm employees' concerns. These materials have been presented to producers and extension educators in Michigan and shared with extension educators in other states. As an outcome of the application of job satisfaction research results employee well-being, safety on farms, and laborproductivity will increase. The previous report mentioned human resource management risk education material for The State University of New Jersey (Rutgers) Commodity Partnership Agreement in conjunction with the USDA Risk Management Agency and the New Jersey Department of Agriculture, based on earlier research in this project. The material has been published as part of a series of five notebooks and accompanying CD. In using these materials, agricultural managers will be able to increase labor productivity and reduce risk.

Publications

  • Bitsch, V. 2005. Qualitative research: A grounded theory example and evaluation criteria. Journal of Agribusiness 23:75-91.
  • Bitsch, V., Hogberg, M. 2005. Exploring horticultural employees' attitudes towards their jobs: A qualitative analysis based on Herzberg's theory of job satisfaction. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 37:659-671.
  • Bitsch, V., Mugera, A.W. 2005. Employees: A source of competitive advantage. Michigan Dairy Review 10(1):14-17.
  • Mugera, A.W., Bitsch, V. 2005. Labor on dairy farms: A resource-based perspective with evidence from case studies. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 8(July, 3):79-98.

Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Based on focus group discussions with agricultural managers in dairy, greenhouse, and nursery production and in landscaping, detailed in previous progress reports, labor management case studies had been undertaken with six dairy farms, four greenhouses, six nurseries, and four landscape contractors. In most cases, the manager, a supervisor or herdsman, and one or two non-supervisory employees agreed to participate in in-depth interviewers about labor management practices and outcomes. Interviews followed an interview schedule devised to provide detail and perspective for the focus group discussion results. The three different sets of questions focused on overall satisfaction and goal setting, planning, recruitment and training, compensation, participation and relationships at the workplace, conflicts, discipline and termination, workplace safety and accident prevention, working with an immigrant workforce, and dealing with labor laws and regulations. Labor managementpractices in agriculture are a fragmentally researched subject with limited theoretical background in agricultural economics. The six dairy cases have been analyzed in a resource-based theory framework to study its applicability to labor management on farms. The theory requires heterogeneity, immobility, value, rareness, inimitability, and non-substitutability for resources - in this case employees - to contribute to sustained competitive advantage. The employees and the human resource management system of the case farms satisfy these conditions and hence qualify as a source of competitive advantage. The resource-based theory, therefore, provides a useful framework for analyzing labor management questions in agriculture and a basis for management recommendations to increase competitiveness. Unlike previous empirical studies presented at conferences, in edited books, and research reports that focused on distinct human resource management practices, this study explored the integrationof various practices (e.g., recruitment and selection, training, compensation) and their outcomes (relationships, voluntary turnover, termination). Across case comparisons of the human resource management practices indicate that each case has a distinct human resource system emanating from its organizational culture, kinship and friendship ties, and resource endowment. Organizational outcomes, such as low rates of voluntary turnover and termination, employee satisfaction and manager satisfaction do not emanate from single or isolated human resource management practices. While recruitment through employee referrals and selection of new hires with ties to incumbent employees was reported to result in compatible teams, other practices like compensation and training, together with the organizational culture influenced the outcomes. Therefore, in each case, the manager has the potential to develop a unique human resource system as a source of sustained competitive advantage. Furtheranalysis of the case data is currently underway.

Impacts
Labor management in agriculture happens in a complex regulatory and competitive environment. Agricultural managers often have to handle this situation without a personnel management background and, therefore, tend to rely on intuitive decision making. Successful practices of a different organizational context may not have similar success in agriculture; practices which are successful on one farm may have a different outcome on another farm. The results provide an empirical basis for developing both testable hypotheses and survey items understandable to agricultural producers and their employees. The data gained through the focus group discussions and the case studies enables a deeper understanding of how agricultural actors conceptualize their work. Based on the knowledge gained through the case analysis, previously develop workshop material were further refined and tailored to include specific recommendations for agricultural managers. These materials have beenpresented to producers and extension educators in Michigan and shared with extension educators in other states. They have also been used to create human resource management risk education material for The State University of New Jersey (Rutgers) Commodity Partnership Agreement in conjunction with the USDA Risk Management Agency and the New Jersey Department of Agriculture, which is to be broadly distributed to agricultural producers. In using these materials, agricultural managers will be able to increase labor productivity by 30% and reduce risk. In addition, employee well-being and safety on farms will increase.

Publications

  • Bitsch, V. and Harsh, S.B. 2004. Labor risk attributes in the green industry: Business owners' and managers' perspectives. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 36:731-745.
  • Bitsch, V. 2004. Focus group discussions as a research and extension method: The case of personnel management issues in horticultural businesses. Acta Horticulturae 655:461-469.
  • Bitsch, V., Harsh, S.B. and Mugera, A.W. 2004. Top managers share employee tips and traps: A recent Michigan survey shows what tactics work and don't work with employees on their farms. Hoard's Dairyman-The National Dairy Farm Magazine 149 (3), February 10, 2004, p. 95.
  • Mugera, A.W. 2004. Managing human resources on six dairy farms in Michigan: A resource-based perspective. Plan B Research Paper. Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University.

Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Employees are both a source of risk and means of addressing risk, and good employee management practices can increase risk resilience. Twenty-two dairy managers participated in moderated focus group discussions about personnel issues related to their industry. Most participants were experienced managers with a mean of 18 years in the same position. They represented a broad cross-section of dairy farming from 125 cows to 5,000 cows. Four focus groups meetings were organized in different regions of Michigan. Each meeting lasted about two hours and was tape-recorded and transcribed. In addition, researchers took observation notes and participants filled out a short survey after the group discussion. Currently labor supply is not considered a major problem by the discussion participants. Due to the high level of unemployment and the influx of immigrant labor of Hispanic descent, managers have been able to hire suitable employees for the last two years. However, thelong-term viability of this labor supply is risk prone with respect to immigration provisions and legal eligibility of individuals for employment in the U.S. In addition, working with employees with limited English language proficiency has changed farms. Hiring additional personnel relies almost completely on referral by current employees. In addition, farmers use word of mouth in the community and walk-ins for recruiting general labor. For supervisory and specialized positions, advertising was a means of recruitment. Training approaches vary depending on farm size. While managers on small farms are involved in the training process, herdsmen are responsible on larger farms. Training through co-workers is also common. Job performance was seldom perceived as a problem and formal evaluations are done rarely. Employees with substandard performance often experience pressure by co-workers to either adjust or look for employment elsewhere. Although discharge is unusual, some managers areconcerned about legal risks and other problems associated with the process. In general, wages are above the legal minimum. Benefits range from the legally mandated minimum to an inclusive benefit package, especially for supervisory employees. Benefits offered include paid vacation and health insurance, and in some cases housing. Based upon the findings in the focus group discussions an interview guide for in-depth assessment of risks and strategies to mediate risk was developed. Six dairy farms participated with 20 individuals being interviewed. Analysis of the case data is currently underway.

Impacts
Agricultural managers rarely receive personnel management training, which often results in using inefficient and high-risk management practices and in productivity losses. Based on the knowledge gained through the project a workshop has been developed and delivered for dairy farmers and herdsmen, including the following topics: (1) recruiting and selecting the best employees; (2) hiring a legal workforce; (3) training employees for high performance; (4) building relationships with a diverse workforce; (5) motivating employees daily; and (6) managing conflict. Workshop participants indicated that they increased their knowledge in personnel management and related risks and they plan to put into practice what they have learned and thereby reduce labor related risks. On average, implementation of improved human resource management practices should have the effect of reducing turnover rates by 50% in the next 3 years, and increasing labor productivity up to 30% in the next5 years for workshop participants. Additional farmers will benefit during upcoming extension meetings and through individual consultations. Indirectly, the project will contribute to improve the quality of work life of agricultural employees and reduce the number of workplace accidents and work-related health problems. Fifty percent of participants in different phases of the project reported being more conscientious of employee input into work procedures and management practices through the project.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period

Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
During the project year 2002, progress has been made in assessing human resource management issues and risks in Michigan agriculture, particularly the green industries (greenhouse operations, nurseries, landscape contractors). The assessment involved two phases: (1) focus group discussions with managers and supervisors to attain a broad overview of human resource concerns; (2) individual interviews with industry leaders to validate and prioritize concerns identified in the first phase. During the discussions, most managers referred to their employees as diverse, from different venues and backgrounds. They also felt a need to attract more young local individuals to their industries. Working with Hispanic employees, particularly those with limited English language proficiency, had changed many enterprises in the green industries. The necessity for intermediaries for translation had changed work and communication processes. Another concern for managers was theeligibility of employees for employment in the United States. The perceived risk of hiring someone with fraudulent papers was high. Michigan's green industries face a pronounced seasonal pattern. Businesses with an emphasis on bedding plant production faced a retention and loyalty issue because their season is short. Successful managers took pride in having a sizable share of employees returning each year. These core employees were a source of continuity and risk resilience. Many managers also depended on referrals from these employees when seeking to hire additional personnel. Hiring also occurred through walk-ins, temporary services, labor contractors, and, rarely, advertising. Screening of job candidates was rather uncommon in the green industries. The majority would hire anyone willing to do the job and learn. In larger operations, supervisors were responsible for the training, whereas in smaller ones managers and co-workers did the training. When managers did the trainingthemselves, some took pride in providing comprehensive knowledge, while others trained strictly for the tasks at hand. Job performance was rarely a problem. If someone was performing sub-standard, other employees applied pressure to be more productive. Behavioral problems included safety, tardiness, and absenteeism. Ignoring safety procedures was the most frequent reason for employee dismissal. While managers wanted to develop their employees' loyalty, they did not want to achieve this by having very close relationships with their employees. They thought it important to maintain a professional relationship. In general, wages were above the legal minimum. Some managers stressed that they could not pay as much as they would have liked. Other managers underlined that the current economic situation had given them some leeway on the labor market. Benefits ranged from the legally mandated minimum to an inclusive fringe benefit package especially for supervisory employees. Perks includedoccasional free meals and drinks, assistance with personal issues and paperwork, and for landscapers, lending equipment or vehicles.

Impacts
Managers and supervisors in the green industries often advance to their position without sufficient training in personnel management. This deficit leads to less efficient management practices and retention, loyalty, and motivation problems. As a consequence productivity is often reduced. Based on the assessment of the most pertinent human resource management issues and risks in the green industry educational material and a pilot workshop has been developed and delivered for green industry managers: "Achieving Better Employee Relationships - Developing a High-Performance People-Oriented Horticultural Business." The workshop addressed the following topics: (1) training employees to become reliable and independent performers; (2) understanding individual behavior and motivation; (3) communicating with a diverse workforce; (4) building a trusting relationship and employee commitment with feedback; (5) turning a problem worker into a valued employee; (6) enhancing theability to lead, manage, and coach employees. Participants found the educational material and the workshop closely tailored to their needs. As a result of the workshop, they decided to work more intensively on employee communication and feedback. They thought the workshop has provided them with more efficient ways to improve workplace relationships and employee motivation.

Publications

(Video) See how the Agri HR Management Curriculum prepares agricultural students to manage and lead

  • No publications reported this period

FAQs

What is human resource management in agriculture? ›

Human resource management: Management process of planning, recruiting, selection, appraisal, training, and compensation of employees in a company in order to manage their performances and gain business success. Training and Development: HR activity related to the increase in employees' knowledge, skills, and abilities.

Why is human resource important in agriculture? ›

Why do you need to implement human resources into your farm business? A skilled and effective employee is key to your farm's success and profitability. Human resources helps you select, attract and keep employees by leading them appropriately and successfully, and aligning them with your farm's objectives and goals.

What is the role of human resources management in agribusiness and discuss it? ›

Functions of HRM in Agribusiness The main functions of human resource management is to administer, plan and develop the policies that are concerned with effective utilization of organization's human resources. HRM is purely concerned with the people at work and their relationship in organization.

What are the 4 main resources of HRM? ›

Answer: The four basic functions of the HRM are similar to those of any manager – planning, organizing, directing, and controlling.

What are examples of human resources? ›

An example of human resources is the department you would speak with to get more information about employee benefits. A department, in a company or institution, responsible for personnel records, company benefits, hiring and training of employees, etc.; personnel department.

How does human resources planning work? ›

Human resources planning ensures the best fit between employees and jobs while avoiding manpower shortages or surpluses. There are four key steps to the HRP process. They include analyzing present labor supply, forecasting labor demand, balancing projected labor demand with supply, and supporting organizational goals.

What is Agricultural Resources Development? ›

Development is a) a process of people learning to solve their own problems, b) sustainably. It means progressing from one problem to another. Agricultural development is possible in more ways and climates than people often think. -

What is the primary function of HR professionals in the talent acquisition process? ›

A talent acquisition specialist can be described as an HR professional who focuses on sourcing, identifying and hiring specific types of employees. Talent acquisition specialists are often hired by companies in competitive job markets that are actively growing and changing, such as tech, healthcare and finance.

What is the importance of agriculture in Nepal? ›

According to the International Labour Organisation, agriculture provides livelihoods for 68 percent of Nepal's population, accounting for 34 percent of the GDP. Nevertheless, Nepal struggles to produce an adequate supply of food for its citizens.

What are the roles of human resource management? ›

Human Resources manages 5 main duties: talent management, compensation and employee benefits, training and development, compliance, and workplace safety. An HR department can help provide organizational structure and the ability to meet business needs by effectively managing the employee lifecycle.

What are the 7 HR processes? ›

Recruitment & selection, performance management, learning & development, succession planning, compensation and benefits, Human Resources Information Systems, and HR data and analytics are considered cornerstones of effective HRM.

What is the importance of human resource? ›

HR plays a key role in developing, reinforcing and changing the culture of an organisation. Pay, performance management, training and development, recruitment and onboarding and reinforcing the values of the business are all essential elements of business culture covered by HR.

What is the meaning of human resource management? ›

Human resource management (HRM) is the practice of recruiting, hiring, deploying and managing an organization's employees. HRM is often referred to simply as human resources (HR).

What are the objectives of human resource planning? ›

Following are the objectives of human resource planning:

(i) To ensure the right distribution of manpower in different trades in an undertaking. (ii) To determine training needs. (iii) To provide control measures to ensure that necessary human resources are available. (iv) To forecast the turnover.

What are 3 resources used in agriculture? ›

U.S. agricultural production relies heavily on the Nation's land, water, and other natural resources, and has a direct impact on the quality of the Nation's natural environment.

What are the main agricultural resources? ›

The basic resources for agriculture are sunlight, soil and water, besides the seeds and animal breeds, and human Endeavour. Another important input is the agro technique. Agricultural production is adversely affected if any of these factors is limited, or disturbed.

What are the examples of agricultural resources? ›

6.1 Natural resources, especially those of soil, water, plant and animal diversity, vegetation cover, renewable energy sources, climate, and ecosystem services are fundamental for the structure and function of agricultural systems and for social and environmental sustainability, in support of life on earth.

Why is recruitment important to human resource management? ›

Recruitment employee is extremely important in HR management as it ensures that employees who wish to enter into the organisation are a perfect fit for the business, whilst further displaying the professionalism of the entire organisation at the very first moments a prospective employee wishes to onboard.

Why is recruitment and selection the most important function in human resources management? ›

An effective recruitment and selection policy not only fulfills the requirements of a job but also ensures that an organization will continue to maintain its commitment to providing equal opportunity to employees. Adherence to such a policy will let you hire the best possible candidates for your organization.

What is the scope of agriculture? ›

National Economy: In 1990 – 91, agriculture contributed 31.6% of the National Income of India, while manufacturing sector contributed 17.6%. It is substantial than other countries for example in 1982 it was 34.9% in India against 2% in UK, 3% in USA, 4 % in the Canada.

What are some advantages of agriculture? ›

Agriculture can help reduce poverty, raise incomes and improve food security for 80% of the world's poor, who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming.

What are the solution of agriculture? ›

Governments should reduce the costs of basic farm inputs like seeds, fertilizers, herbicides etc. which farmers need and distribute to farmers. Provisions should be made to ensure that these inputs get to farmers directly without middlemen or brokers.

What is the primary function of HR professionals in the talent acquisition process? ›

A talent acquisition specialist can be described as an HR professional who focuses on sourcing, identifying and hiring specific types of employees. Talent acquisition specialists are often hired by companies in competitive job markets that are actively growing and changing, such as tech, healthcare and finance.

What is the importance of agriculture in Nepal? ›

According to the International Labour Organisation, agriculture provides livelihoods for 68 percent of Nepal's population, accounting for 34 percent of the GDP. Nevertheless, Nepal struggles to produce an adequate supply of food for its citizens.

What is HRM and its importance? ›

What is human resource management (HRM)? HRM can be defined as the effective management of people in an organisation. HR management helps bridge the gap between employees' performance and the organisation's strategic objectives. Moreover, an efficient HR management team can give firms an edge over their competition.

What is the role and functions of HRM? ›

Some of the primary functions of HRM include job design and job analysis, recruitment/ hiring and selection, training and development, compensation and benefits, performance management, managerial relations and labour relations.

What are the functions of human resources management? ›

5 functions of human resource management
  • Recruitment and hiring.
  • Onboarding and ongoing training and development.
  • Managing employee and employer relationships.
  • Creating a rewarding company culture.
  • Overseeing disciplinary action.
Jun 11, 2021

Videos

1. Human Resource Management: Professor Samantha Warren
(University of Essex)
2. Evolution of HRM
(John W. Budd)
3. Human Resource managment in Agriculture-sijish nambiar
(gwt farming)
4. Human Resource Planning in Nepali || Human Resource Management HRM in Nepali
(Nepal Online School Nonprofit Project)
5. AMI Episode 5 - Human Resources The Fundamentals Cut
(AMIOntario)
6. HRM PROJECT !
(RADIcALꗈᎶㄖᗪᗪ乇丂丂ꗈ)

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