Definition of the food chain (2022)

Contents



  • 1 food chain definition
  • 2 levels of the food chain2.1 Products2.2 disposables
  • 2.1 Products
  • 2.2 disposables
  • 3 Examples of the food chain
  • 4 types of food chain
  • 5 Pyramid power transmission in the food chain
  • 6 Food Network
  • 7 the importance of the food chain
  • 8 References

Definition of the food chain


Food chain (known in English: Food chain) as an imaginary scheme serially express transmission material and nutrients and energy from the organism to another in the environment, and start all kinds of food chains main source of energy which is the sun, and then move in straight lines from one object to another, a so different from the food network (in English: food web) consisting of several food chains, with overlap energy pathways where because of the organism's consumption of several types of organisms, whether animals or plants, for example, when human eating sandwich burgers makes it a part of food chain following: grass ← cow ← man, and if it contains a sandwich on lettuce man is part of the food chain is another: lettuce ← rights. [1] [2] [3]

Each living organism in the food chain level diet specific (English: Trophic level), and not more than the food chain one level four, or five levels, due to the loss of part of the energy in the form of heat when it flows from one level to another, so it is better to be short food chain to ensure that the organism in another series on enough energy, and the types of food chains secondary: [4]


  • Predatory food chain: food chain Predatory (known in English: Predator chain) that the organism preys and devoured another neighborhood after the killing of an object.
  • Food chain spam: intrudes small organism-sized food Balslsh spam (in English: Parasite chain) on another neighborhood greater than the object.
  • Food chain undershoot: feeds microorganism in the food chain undershoot (in English: Saprophytic chain) on the organism after his death.

Food chain levels


Divide the food chain for several different levels are as follows: [2] [5] [6]

Products


Know the products (in English: Producers) as self-feeding organisms (in English: Autotrophic), which made their own food, they are thus an important part of the food chain and ecosystem alike, are considered green plants main products on the mainland, while algae main products in aquatic systems Kalphar fresh water, and this is done by:


  • Photosynthesis: refers to photosynthesis process (in English: Photosynthesis) use some live plants like organisms, algae, and phytoplankton sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose, as it consumes most of the energy produced by products in the construction process of photosynthesis for the growth of products and support them that, and part few of this energy is transmitted to consumers when ingested.Chemical structure: means the process of building the chemical (in English: Chemosynthesis) converting carbon compounds to food, and organisms that produce their own food in this way, a type of bacteria that live in volcanoes.
  • Photosynthesis: refers to photosynthesis process (in English: Photosynthesis) use some live plants like organisms, algae, and phytoplankton sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose, as it consumes most of the energy produced by products in the construction process of photosynthesis for the growth of products and support them that, and part few of this energy is transmitted to consumers when ingested.
  • Chemical structure: means the process of building the chemical (in English: Chemosynthesis) converting carbon compounds to food, and organisms that produce their own food in this way, a type of bacteria that live in volcanoes.

Consumables


Know disposables (in English: Consumers) as living organisms derive energy and food needs on other living organisms, represent the second food level and includes herbivores (animals in English: Herbivores, and carnivores (in English: Carnivores), and examples of them black, spiders, animals Algarth , any meat eaters, and plants together (in English: Omnivores), and examples of the bears, and most species of birds, humans, and divided consumers to: [2]


  • Primary consumers: feed the basic consumables (in English: primary consumers) products, as include herbivores that eat plants and herbs, may be the primary consumers of algae or bacteria eaters (in English: bacteria eaters), and examples of them; Birds, deer, turtles, and others.
  • Secondary consumers: feed secondary consumers (in English: Secondary consumers) on the basic or primary consumers, and include objects dealing with meat and animals are called carnivores or carnivores (in English: Carnivores).
  • Disposables Triple feed disposables third degree (in English: Tertiary consumers) on the secondary consumers, and include objects dealing with carnivores such as eagles or large fish objects.
  • Supreme disposables: occupies disposables of the fourth degree or postgraduate (in English: quaternary consumers) the top of the food chain, called the upper Bamuftrs Ooualemftersat upper (apex consumers), a predator stronger that feed on other consumers, usually their diet is limited to the third food level.
  • Decomposers: Know Alcansat Oomahllat (in English: Detritivores and decomposers) are organisms that feed on plants and animals dead, or animal wastes, and examples of the eagles, and dung beetles, and decomposers such as bacteria, fungi are working on the analysis of the remains of the living after their death , turned this organic material to non-organic materials, and bring them back to the soil for the benefit of other products once and thus the food chain ends and complete the life cycle.

Examples of the food chain



  • The first example, a food chain on land: herbs ← grasshopper ← rat snake ← ← Sakr.
  • The second example, the food chain in the marine environment: plant plankton ← Prawns ← blue whale.
  • The third example, the food chain in fresh water: algae ← mosquito larvae ← larvae of dragonflies ← fish ← Racoon.

In the context of the above, the following table different food chains in different environments shows:[7]

Types of food chain


The food chain is divided into two main types: [8]


  • Food chain for grazing: (English: Grazing food chain), consists of this type of chains of four main rings are primary products (plants), primary consumers (herbivores), secondary consumers (primary carnivores), disposables third-class (carnivores secondary), where the plant works on the photosynthesis of light, water, carbon dioxide, for the production of sugar and other organic compounds, and the intervention of these compounds in the composition of plant tissues that form the food for animals herbivores, which in turn form food for primary animals for carnivores, and then become the food for the animals, in turn, secondary carnivores, and so feeds every consumer on its predecessor to form the food chain.
  • Food chain undershoot: (English: Detrital food chain), consists of this type of chains of accurate, such as algae living organisms, bacteria, fungi, insects, etc., which is based on the analysis of organic material and convert it into nutrients non-organic, and be the most decomposers are small in size and live in organic food rich environments, making their ability to less than consumers in the previous type of movement, in addition to the lack of clear nutritional levels divided into the functional roles accurately predecessor.

Pyramid power transmission in the food chain


The pyramid of energy (in English: Energy pyramid) model represents the path of energy transfer between different levels of food in the food chain, it also shows that the amount of energy available decreases at each level in the food chain; Therefore, the number of organisms decreases as well, and to clarify the idea pyramid is a representation of the food chain to represent the base products, which are the most numerous in the ecosystem, and this necessarily mean its ability to produce a large amount of energy, making it occupies a large area of ​​the pyramid, they are turning solar and chemical energy to form a usable, in addition to their ability to glucose production, which is the basic form of primary energy in the food network, and then followed by the first disposables, which occupies the second layer in the pyramid, and imagine the shape of the pyramid is clear that the first disposables less number of products, and occupies the third layer second disposables, and so so we get to the narrow top of the pyramid occupied by the Supreme disposables, which are at least a number in the ecosystem. [6] [9]

Estimated the energy that moves from trophic level to the next level by only 10%. Assuming that the unit kcal per square meter energy stock in one in the first level (products) is equal to 20,000, the energy transmitted to the level of primary consumers are in 2000, and the energy up to secondary consumers are 200, disposables triple arrive 20, while the upper level of consumers Faisalha 2 only, [10] can be explained by declining energy stocks among different trophic levels including the following: [10]


  • The loss of part of the energy in the form of heat, when the organism is vital, such as breathing processes.
  • Not the body of the organism's ability to digest all organic substances covered, come out of the body in the form of feces or dung.
  • The death of some members of the food level, without becoming prey to the next level, but consumed by decomposers that sad energy transformed into heat by the cellular respiration process.

food web


Can the Food Network definition (in English: Food web) as a representation of all relationships and food chains between different organisms, used stock in this representation to illustrate the course of the transfer of energy and food indicates the stock is always toward the animal that preys on the other animal, and this is not found in food chains ecosystem individually, because most of the animals feed on different prey species, which may belong to several levels of food, and can be in turn is food for many predators, and thus food chains overlap with each other to pose. [11] [10]

The importance of the food chain


Identifies the importance of the food chain in the following: [12]


  • Food chains clarify the relationship of complex organisms to each other, showing the level that belongs to him an object.
  • Food chains help scientists understand the ecosystem, study, and how to keep his balance in the event of a disruption.
  • Reveal the extent of adoption of organisms living on the other for survival, and provide an explanation for the reasons for the collapse of some food chains.

References



  • ↑ The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (23-12-2019), "food-chain"، www.britannica.com, Retrieved 8-1-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب ت "Food chains & food webs", www.khanacademy.org, Retrieved 8-1-2019. Edited.
  • ↑ Jenn Savedge (7-3-2017), "Food Chains and Food Webs: What's The Difference?"، www.thoughtco.com, Retrieved 21-12-2017. Edited.
  • ↑ "Food chain", www.britannica.com,16-10-2017، Retrieved 21-12-2017. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب "food chain", www.nationalgeographic.org, Retrieved 21-12-2017. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب Jenn Savedge (17-3-2017), "Energy Flow in Ecosystems"، www.thoughtco.com, Retrieved 21-12-2017. Edited.
  • ↑ "Life on the Food Chain", www.www2.nau.edu, Retrieved 8-1-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Conservation of Wildlife Resources", www.people.eku.edu, Retrieved 8-1-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Food Chains and Food Webs", www.geo.libretexts.org,5-6-2019، Retrieved 8-1-2020. Edited.
  • ^ أ ب ت "Food chains & food webs", www.khanacademy.org, Retrieved 21-12-2017. Edited.
  • ↑ Erin Sprout, Jeff Hunt, Hilary Hall (7-11-2012), "Food Web"، www.nationalgeographic.org, Retrieved 8-1-2020. Edited.
  • ↑ "Food Chain", sciencing.com, Retrieved 3-2-2020. Edited.

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